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Year : 1999
Tome : 150
Volume : 11
Pages : 895-898
Title : History of vaccine development in Ancient orient time
Authors : H. TADJBAKHSH
Summary : The present article forms part of a research by the author with reference to 2,500 books and many ancient manuscripts on the history of veterinary science and medicine in Iran. The most of the results have been published in two volumes : "History of Veterinary Medicine and Medicine in Iran".Views concerning immunology and vaccination can be found in various writings of early Iranian scientists. RHAZES (d. 925 AD) wrote the first article on the subject of allergy and BIRUNNI (1048 AD) mentioned an antibody-like theory. In ancient times in Iran and some other oriental countries various procedures for vaccinating animals and man existed long befote the discoveries of Edward JENNER and Louis PASTEUR. The use of liver from a rabid dog, placed on a bitten wound, preconised by AVICENNA (1038 AD) is a practical application of the concept of vaccination. Several centuries ago, in Iran and some other parts of the Middle East, vaccination against smallpox was performed using dried smallpox crusts or touching the udder skin lesions of a cow infected by cowpox. Since old times in some regions of southeastern Iran, an autogenus vaccine was prepared against contagious pleuropneumonia. Several varieties of this traditional vaccination have come out in Africa in some tribes of Kenya and Somalia. In Iran and some other parts of the Middle East a kind of oral vaccine against foot and mouth disease was prepared using the saliva of the infected cow. In Africa some traditional forms of vaccination were practiced to prevent rinderpest, anthrax and contagious bovine pleuropneurnonia. In Rwanda and Madagascar the Indian people of the regions affected by relapsing fever profited the bite of infected "Ornithodorus Moubata" to reinforce their natural immunity. In "Mianeh" area of Azarbaijan, Iran, an oral vaccine against "Borrelia Persica" was prepared by using extracts of the infected "0. Tolozani" diluted in fruit juice.
Keywords : history, vaccine, Iran, orient, immunology, medicine, veterinary medicine
Correspondence : H. TADJBAKHSH
Adress : Emeritus professor of University of Tehran, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of lmmunology and Microbiology, PO. Box 14155 - 6453, Teheran, Iran

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