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Year : 2017
Tome : 168
Volume : 10-12
Pages : 252-261
Title : Environmental impact on the distribution of leishmaniasis in the focus of Tizi-Ouzou (Algeria)
Authors : A. MOULOUA, S. C. BOUBIDI, L. BOUIBA, G. MEZAI, M. MADIOU, Z. HARRAT
Summary : For many years, the highest number of visceral leishmaniasis cases registered in Algeria occur in the region of Tizi ouzou located in the northern part of the country (Kabylia). Canine leishmaniasis is also expanding in this region characterized by a diversity of landscapes along which there are many favorable biotopes for the development of a phlebotomous fauna. For our study, we divided the region into four geographical entities according to a north-south gradient, taking into account variations in the density of leishmaniasis vectors, seroprevalence of canine leishmaniasis and the number of cases of human leishmaniasis recorded in ten years. The aim of this work is to establish, in this part of the country (Kabylia), a possible correlation between the different stages of the Leishmanian life cycle. In this study, 8750 phlebotomine sandflies were captured using sticky papers and light traps. Phlebotomus perniciosus, the main vector in North Africa of Leishmania infantum, the causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis and P. perfiliewi, the main vector of another enzymatic variant of L. infantum, a sporadic cutaneous leishmaniasis agent, were the most representative captured species with respective rates of 51.4% and 28.6% of all identified sandflies. The cumulative density of these two vector species is 104.4 sandflies per square meter in Draa El Mizan valley (Southwest of our study area), whereas it is only 2.81 individuals per square meter at the northernmost investigated area (coastline). Molecular detection of the parasite Leishmania infantum performed on 191 tested sandflies females was positive on 52 and 9 individuals of P. perniciosus and P. perfiliewi respectively. The infected females all come from the area of Boghni, located in Draa El Mizan valley. In addition, serological screening of canine leishmaniasis by indirect immunofluorescence assay on 603 dogs from different ecological zones revealed an overall seroprevalence of 9.95%. Draa El Mizan is the most affected area with a rate of 16.3% of positive sera. From 2005 to 2010, the number of recorded cases of human leishmaniasis (VL and CL) in the region of Tizi Ouzou reached 130 cases, with 80 cases for the only Draa El Mizan area. A measured correlation coefficient revealed a significant relationship between the density of Phlebotomes of the subgenus Larroussius and the seroprevalence of canine leishmaniasis as well as the reported human leishmaniasis cases in the region.
Keywords :
Correspondence : A. MOULOUA
Adress : Faculté des Sciences Biologiques et des Sciences Agronomiques. Université Mouloud Mammeri Tizi Ouzou (Algérie). mouloua_a@hotmail.com
Link : pdf

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